Bolivia’s Icons: The Myth of Volcán Thunupa & Salar de Uyuni

Tags

, , , , ,

Wulkan Thunupa (or Tunupa) – jest jednym z najwazniejszych, najbardziej imponujacych i charakterystycznych szczytow Boliwii, dzieki swoim naturalnym, kulturowym, spolecznym i religijnym konotacjom. Ten uspiony wulkan o wysokosci 5321 m.n.p.m., znajduje sie w departamencie Potosi, na polnoc od najwiekszej pustyni solnej swiata – Salar de Uyuni, i jest uwazany za swieta gore ludu Aymara.

Zastanawialiscie sie kiedys, jak powstala slynna pustynia solna?  Co madrzejsi powiedza, ze jest ona pozostaloscia po morzu. Ale morza nawet najstarsi gorale nie pamietaja, przekazujac sobie z pokolenia na pokolenie taka oto historie:

Legenda glosi, iz dawno temu wulkan byla piekna kobieta o imieniu Thunupa, ktora najbrdziej na swiecie pragnela by o nia zabiegano. Wraz z uplywem czasu, Thunupa zaszła w ciaze i urodzila syna, ktorego ojciec byl nieznany. Wszyscy zalotnicy oferwali Thunupie opieke nad dzieckiem, a gdy ta odmowila, w desperacji porwali dziecie, ukrywajac je w Colchani. Dzis mozna w tym miesjcu zobaczyc male gory, ktore symbolizuja zaginione dziecko. Thunupa, ktora kochala swojego syna, z tesknoty wylewala z oczu rzeki lez, a z piersi – mleka. Gdy tak rozpaczala, lzy i mleko rozprzestrzenily sie po calym regionie, tworzac biale solne jeziora, dzis znane jako Salar de Thunupa i Salar de Uyuni, nad ktorego horyzontem dumnie goruje wulkan Thunupa.

Volcano Tunupa & Salar de Uyuni

Inna wersja legendy glosi, ze Thunupa byla kobieta z poludnia, ktora wyszla za maz za Azanaquesa z rejonu Huari. Mezczyzna lubil biesiadowac i pic alkohol. Podczas jednej ze sprzeczek malzenskich, Azanaques ciezko pobil zone, ktora w tym czasie nosila w swoim lonie dziecie. Thunupa postanowila uciec od meza z nowo narodzonym Sullkiem. Ciezko ranna, zatrzymala sie na kilka godzin na obrzezach San Pedro de Condo. Znalazla tam kilka ziol leczniczych, ktorymi opatrzyla swe rany, a nastepnie kontynuowala podroz. Po drodze jednak z jej ciala kapala krew, ktorej krople przeksztalcily sie w trzy male czerwone wzgorza , nazwane Wila- Wila (‘krew z krwi’).

W tym samym czasie, rozwscieczony Azanaques zarzadzil poszukiwania. Wraz ze swymi poplecznikami ruszyl sladami zony i syna. Tymczasem Thunupa zatrzymala sie by przygotowac posilek. Z gliny i skal granitowych zbudowala piec, w ktorym po latach powstala wies Quillacas, dzis miejsce pielgrzymek. Jej mieszkancy opowiadaja, ze Thunupa gotowala posilek wsrod trzech pobliskich wzgorz i dlatego te gory sa dzis czarne, okopcone dymem z jej ogniska.

Na swojej drodze Thunupa pozostawila takze swoje slady w ksztalcie gigantycznych sandalow. Jej pelne piersi rozlewaly mleko po plaskim terenie, kiedy szla w kierunku Pampas Aullaguas. W swoim pospiechu nie zauwazyla, ze z jej ch’ uspa, torebki, wyciekalo ‘pitu‘ (?), ktore rozlalo sie na calej pampie. Mieszkancy mowia, ze przeksztalcilo sie ono w piasek, a mleko z jej piersi, w sol. Solna pustynia znajduje sie niedaleko miejscowości Pampa Aullagas,  obejmujac okolice dziesiejszego miasteczka Salinas de Garcia Mendoza, gdzie Thunupa zamieszkala, wolna od swoich przesladowcow.

Volcano Tunapa & Salar de Uyuni

A wedlug jeszcze innej legendy Aymara, Thunupa byla mezczyzna, bogiem wulkanow i blyskawic lub jeszcze inaczej – bogiem morza, jezior i rzek. Skad tak glebokie rozbieznosci w historii o Thunupie? Mysle, ze nieprzypadkowo sa one odbiciem roznych sytuacji spolecznych, panujacych (nie tylko) w Boliwii: rozwiazla kobieta, samotna matka, mszczacy sie zalotnicy, zona bita przez meza alkoholika, wreszcie mezczyzna – bog. Kazdy wierzy w to co chce i jak mu jest wygodniej.

Zrodla: Boliwia Te Espera sitio Oficial & atlantisbolivia.org.

***

Volcano Thunupa (or Tunupa)- is one of the most important, imposing and iconic mountains of Bolivia, for its natural, cultural, social and religious connotations. A dormant volcano in the Potosí Department stands on the northern side of the Salar de Uyuni at an elevation of 5,321 m above sea level. Due to its outstanding location, on the border of the biggest salt flats in the world, the Volcano Tunupa is known as a holy mountain of the Aymara people.

Have you ever wondered how the famous salt desert was created? Wise people will say that it is the remnant of the sea. But even the oldest locals don’t remember the sea, instead passing from generation to generation this story:

According to legend, long ago the volcano was a beautiful woman Thunupa. All she ever wanted was to be courted. With the passage of time Thunupa became pregnant, giving birth to a child whose father was unknown. All the suitors offered to care for the child and in desperation they usurped the child from his mother to hide him in Colchani, where nowadays you can see small mountains that symbolize the lost baby. Thunupa who loved her son very much, began to mourn and pour milk from their breasts and while she wept, her tears and breast milk spread throughout the region becoming what is today the Salar de Thunupa and Salar de Uyuni.

Another legend has it that Thunupa was a woman from the south, who married Azanaquesa from ​​Huari. Her husband liked to dine and drink heavily. During one of the arguments, Azanaques beat up his wife, who at that time was pregnant with a baby. Thunupa, badly wounded decided to run away with a newborn Sullka. She stayed for a couple of hours on the outskirts of San Pedro de Condo, where she found several medicinal herbs to heal her wounded body. Then she continued her journey. Along the way, however, she dripped blood, which later has been converted into three small hills of reddish earth, named Wila-wila (“blood-blood”).

At the same time, the enraged Azanaques ordered the search. He and his henchmen followed the tracks of his wife and son. Meanwhile, Thunupa stopped to prepare a meal. With clay and granite rocks she built an oven, in which later the village Quillacas was founded and today is a place of pilgrimage. Its residents report that Thunupa cooked meal among the three nearby hills and because of that these are today black with the smoke of her fire.

On her way Thunupa has also left the marks in the shape of giant sandal prints. Her full breasts spilled out milk on the flat ground as she walked towards Pampas Aullaguas. In her haste she didn’t noticed that her pito (?) had been leaking out of a small hole in the ch’uspa (bag) and had spread across the length of the pampa. Residents say, it turned into the sand, and the milk from her breast, into the salt. Salt desert is located near the town of Pampa Aullagas and even covering nearby town of Salinas de Garcia Mendoza, where Thunupa set up her new home, living peacefully away from her pursuers.

And according to yet another Aymara legend, Thunupa was a man, a god of the volcanos and thunder or/and a god of the sea, lakes and rivers. Why such deep divergences in the history of Thurnupa? I think it isn’t the coincidence that they are a reflection of different social problems, present (not only) in Bolivia: promiscuous woman, a single mother, grievous suitors, wife beaten by her alcoholic husband, and finally the man – god. At the end, everybody believes in what he wants and what he is comfortable with.

Volcano Tunapa & Salar de Uyuni

Source: Bolivia Te espera sitio oficial & atlantisbolivia.org.

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 67 other followers